With an ageing global population, vision impairment has risen to the forefront as a pronounced public health concern. In 2020, 1·1 billion people had distance vision impairment or uncorrected presbyopia. By 2050, this figure is expected to increase to 1·8 billion people. Common causes of vision impairment, including cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and presbyopia, occur more frequently in later life (>60 years). Although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and vision impairment has decreased in the past 30 years, this decrease has been offset by a rapidly ageing population, which has resulted in an increasing number of individuals, mostly adults older than 60 years, with blindness and vision impairment globally.